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This is a continuation from my previous study skills post on how to reference. Here, I will detail four of the main referencing systems used in UK universities across various disciplines: Harvard, APA, MLA and MHRA.

Note: Since each referencing system is expansive and covers not only citations, references, footnotes and endnotes, but also document formatting, I can only give a simple ‘taster’ of each system through this post. I will provide links to sites that provide more expansive style guides for you to look through for each system listed here. Keep in mind that you should read through all the details of the reference system you will be using for your academic work, as, not following the reference system designated by your department may result in a penalty when marked.

1. Using the Harvard system

The Harvard system is the most common author-date referencing system. The two elements that differentiate the Harvard system from other styles of referencing are that you must use in-text citations and a complete list of all citations must be presented as an alphabetical (by author) reference list at the end of your written work.

When using in-text citations, remember to prepare the following:

Author’s last name(s)

Year of publication

Page number(s)

Here are some (fictional) examples of using in-text citations following the Harvard system:

To summarise a book or journal article:

Author (date of publication)

Yamamoto (2001) argues that trophy hunting is a symbol of male masculinity. 

Direct quotes:

Direct quote from a book or journal article with one author:

Author (date of publication: page number) OR (Author, date of publication: page number)

When reading an essay, Ansari (1989: 192) laments that ‘objectively, one should enjoy reading one’s own work’. 

OR

When reading an essay ‘objectively, one should enjoy reading one’s own work’ (Ansari, 1989: 192).

Direct quote from a book or journal article with two authors:

Author I and Author II (date of publication: page number) OR (Author I, Author II, date of publication: page number)

Khan and Smith (2012: 12-13) suggest that current trends point to ’emojis being the new go-to mode of online communication for social media users’.

OR 

Current trends point to ’emojis being the new go-to mode of online communication for social media users’ (Khan and Smith, 2012: 12-13).

Paraphrasing:

Use the same citation/referencing style that you have used for direct quotes:

Power is the main way in which social inequalities operate and manifest (Jackson and Ahmed, 1992: 12).

Secondary quotes:

When you need to use the quote from an author who is quoted within another book:

Quoted author (in author of book in which quote appears, date of publication: page number) 

Sainath and Clarke (in Roy, 2000: 45) believe that ‘animals should be classified as sentient beings where their emotional states are often more complicated than our own’.

Reference List:

Please click here to read a breakdown of the basic rules for formatting your reference list in the Harvard system.

One author:

Last name, first name initials (date of publication) Title. Journal Title (capitalised and in bold), journal volume: page number

E.g: Yamamoto, S. (2001) Imagining masculinities through ritual. Contemporary Gender Studies Journal, 2: 110-170

For two authors, use ‘and’ in between their names.

For four or more authors, the third author must be followed by ‘et al.’.

To read the full Harvard system referencing style sheets (including reference lists), click here and here.

2. Using the APA (American Psychological Association) system:

 The APA style of referencing is usually used within Psychology and similar disciplines, as it was developed by social and behavioural scientists and includes very specific stylistic formatting. The APA system, similarly to the Harvard system, uses the author-date style of citation and necessitates the inclusion of a reference list.

When using in-text citations, remember to prepare the following:

Author’s last name(s)

Year of publication

Page number (proceeded with a ‘p’, e.g. – p. 200)

Here are some (fictional) examples of using in-text citations following the APA system:

 Direct quotes:

Direct quote from a book or journal article with one author:

Author (date of publication) *quote* (page number) OR (Author, date of publication, page number)

When reading an essay, Ansari (1989) laments that ‘objectively, one should enjoy reading one’s own work’ (p. 192). 

OR

When reading an essay ‘objectively, one should enjoy reading one’s own work’ (Ansari, 1989, p. 192).

Direct quote from a book or journal article with two authors:

Author I and Author II (date of publication) *quote* (page number) OR (Author I & Author II, date of publication, page number)

Khan and Smith (2012) suggest that current trends point to ’emojis being the new go-to mode of online communication for social media users’ (pp.12-13).

OR 

Current trends point to ’emojis being the new go-to mode of online communication for social media users’ (Khan & Smith, 2012, pp. 12-13).

Summary or Paraphrasing:

Author (date of publication) OR (Author, date of publication, page number)

Yamamoto (2001) argues that trophy hunting is a symbol of male masculinity. 

OR

Power is the main way in which social inequalities operate and manifest (Jackson & Ahmed, 1992, p. 12).

Reference List:

Please click here to read a breakdown of the basic rules for formatting your reference list in the APA system.

One author:

Last name, first name initials (date of publication). Title. Journal Title (capitalised and italicised), journal volume, page number.

E.g: Yamamoto, S. (2001). Imagining masculinities through ritual. Contemporary Gender Studies Journal, 2, 110-170.

For two authors, use ‘&’ instead of ‘and’ in between their names.

For three to seven authors, the last author must be preceded by an ‘&’ rather than an ‘and’.

To read the full APA system referencing style sheets (including reference lists), click here and here.

3. Using the MLA (Modern Languages Association) system:

The MLA system is most generally used within the humanities, and particularly in literary disciplines such as English Literature and Language. 

In the MLA system, in-text citation is done through parenthetical citation, where sources are placed in parentheses after a paraphrase or quote. Unlike the Harvard and APA styles, MLA follows the author-page method of citation and does not require a reference list, only a bibliography/works cited list.

Direct quotes:

Direct quote from a book or journal article with one author:

Author *quote* (page number) OR *quote* (Author page number)

When reading an essay, Ansari laments that ‘objectively, one should enjoy reading one’s own work’ (192). 

OR

When reading an essay ‘objectively, one should enjoy reading one’s own work’ (Ansari 192).

Direct quote from a book or journal article with two authors:

Author I and Author II *quote* (page number) OR *quote* (Author I and Author II  page number)

Khan and Smith suggest that current trends point to ’emojis being the new go-to mode of online communication for social media users’ (12-13).

OR 

Current trends point to ’emojis being the new go-to mode of online communication for social media users’ (Khan and Smith 12-13). 

Summary or Paraphrasing:

Author *paraphrase* (page number) OR *paraphrase* (Author page number)

Yamamoto argues that trophy hunting is a symbol of male masculinity (111). 

OR

Power is the main way in which social inequalities operate and manifest (Jackson and Ahmed 12).

Bibliography:

Please click here to read a breakdown of the basic rules for formatting your reference list in the APA system.

One author (book):

Last name, First name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication.

E.g: Yamamoto, Satoshi. Imagining Masculinities Through Ritual. Cambridge: Cambridge Press, 2001.

For two authors:

Last name 1, First name 1, and First name Last name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication.

For more than three authors, include ‘et al.’ after second author’s last name:

 Last name 1, Last name 2, et al. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication.

To read the full MLA system referencing style sheets (including reference lists), click here and here.

4. Using the MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association) system

Similarly to the MLA style, MHRA is often used within the humanities. However, rather than using in-text citations like the other three styles mentioned in this post, the MHRA system uses footnotes to cite sources paraphrased or quoted in pieces of work. For this referencing style, a reference list is not needed, but all the sources cited in your footnotes must be included in your bibliography.

Inserting a footnote:

A footnote must be inserted at the end of a sentence, after the full stop. To insert footnotes using Microsoft Word, make sure your cursor is where you want the footnote number to appear in the text, then bring your cursor to the top menu bar. Click the Insert menu > footnote… > in the window that appears, click ‘insert‘. A footnote should now appear at the bottom of your page, corresponding to the number that should also appear in your text (chronologically starting from ‘1’).

Footnote referencing:

References within your footnotes must be written in full. If the same source is cited one after the other, the second citation can be written as: Ibid., p. page number. When you refer to the same source more than once in your work (e.g. the same book written by the same author), after citing it in full, you can abbreviate your footnote to: Last name, p. page number.

Book:

First name second name, Title (Location of publisher: Publisher, date of publication), p. page number.

Journal article:

First name second name, ‘Article Title’, Journal title, volume number (date of publication), page numbers of article (p. page number).

To read the full MHRA system referencing style sheets (including reference lists), click here and here.

 

 

 

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